Arterial Stiffness

Arterial Stiffness occurs as a consequence of biological aging and arteriosclerosis. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, hypertension, heart failure and stroke, the two leading causes of death in the developed world.



Distending during systole, the large elastic arteries are able to store energy, a phenomenon usually called 'Windkessel Function'. The amount of stored energy depends mainly on the degree of distension, the Distensibility. At the same time, the pressure wave form is modulated towards the periphery and organs.



Endothelium is a single layer of squamous endothelial cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.


Flow Mediated Dilation

Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) refers to dilation (widening) of an artery when blood flow increases in that artery.[1][2] The primary cause of FMD is release of nitric oxide by endothelial cells.[1]



Long COVID, also known as Post-Covid-19 syndrome, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), or chronic COVID syndrome (CCS) is a condition characterized by long-term sequelae appearing or persisting after the typical convalescence period of COVID-19.


Pulse Wave Velocity

Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) is the velocity at which the blood pressure pulse propagates through the circulatory system, usually an artery or a combined length of arteries.